Skeletal Injuries



Stretching or tearing of a ligament caused by trauma.

  • Grade 1: A ligament is overstretched not torn, mild tender pain with some swelling.
  • Grade 2: ligament is partially torn, swelling and bruising with some loss of function.
  • Grade 3: ligament is completely torn, severe swelling, disruption of joint function.



  • Rest – Immobilize the body part to reduce stress and additional trauma.
  • Ice – Apply ice for the first 24-72 hours no longer the 20 minutes at a time to reduce swelling and pain.
  • Compression – Elastic bandage to minimize swelling.
  • Elevate – If possible, elevate the body part to keep fluids from pooling in the injured areas.

Moderate and severe sprains may stay 7 to 10 days. After the 3rd or 4th day, heat can be used as an alternative to improve circulation. Afterwards, perform active stretches and range of motion exercises, followed by strengthening exercises with isometrics as healing occurs. Lastly, use massage to help with range of motion, blood flow, and strength to reduce muscle stress.



A forcible displacement of a bone from its normal position. The most common areas are the shoulders or fingers.


Ice for pain and edema. Perform rehabilitation exercises.

Massage is not allowed util the immobilization is complete. Afterwards, massage can be beneficial for significant soft tissue damage.

Herniated Disk (Slipped disk or Ruptured Disk)


Annulus fibrosus becomes weak or cracked due to trauma or aging, which can cause a bulge in the weakened area. This will cause pressure on a spinal nerve.


Bed rest, anti-inflammatory and/or muscle relaxing medications. After acute stage programs for exercise and proper body mechanics and posture improvement to strengthen muscle. Massage is not allowed until after the acute stage, massage can help to relieve tension around the injured area reducing the chances of compression on the nerve. It can add additional flexibility to maintain posture and strengthening exercises.